JavaScript LogoDemystifying this topic is one of the most important steps towards truly understanding the JavaScript language

It is a little difficult to get your head around JavaScript closures without a basic understanding of scope. I will not attempt to tackle that subject in any kind of detail here. But let’s at least consider this thought: JavaScript functions always (always) retain a reference to any variables that are in-scope when they are defined.

I know that sounds a little nerdy, but it is important to remember. if you are not quite sure what that means, take a little time to explore the concept of scope in JavaScript, then come back to revisit the topic of closures.

Assuming you are comfortable with the concept of scope, think about a function that is defined in the global scope. There is not much going on there because the global scope is the outer-most scope. But what about when a function is defined inside another function? That is where the power of closures starts to take place. When a function is defined within another function, it has access to any variables that are in-scope at the time of definition.

Example # 1

var foo = function(){ var drink = “beer”; return function(){ return drink; }; }; var bar = foo(); console.log( drink ); //wine console.log( bar() ); //beer


Here is the JsFiddle link:

In example # 1, we first create a global variable named “drink” and set it equal to “wine”. Next we have a function “foo”, that returns another function. When we say: ‘var bar = foo()’, we are assigning the value that foo returns to bar.

JavaScript functions always (always) retain a reference to any variables that are in-scope when they are defined.

Since foo returns a function, then bar is now a function. Because the function that has been assigned to bar is defined inside of foo, it has access to foo. This means that in our case, bar returns a private variable that lives inside of foo. That variable inside of foo named “drink”, has been set to “beer”. So, in the global context, “drink” equals “wine” and in the context of foo, “drink” equals “beer”.

The end result is that when we pass the variable “drink” to the console, it is “wine”, because in the global scope, “drink” is equal to “wine”. But when we pass “bar()” to the console, we get “beer”. That is because “bar()” is a function, it returns a variable named “drink” and because “Bar()” was defined inside of foo, it returns the first “drink” it finds, which is private to “foo()” and it is equal to “beer”.

At the most basic level, this is how closures work.


There is much more to talk about with regards to JavaScript closures. But for those of you scratching your heads, just trying to get the basics down, I hope this was helpful.

A video tutorial about JavaScript Closures

Helpful links for getting started with JavaScript Closures