Understanding Context in JavaScript – Object Literals

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Why is the word “this” so important in JavaScript?

In the post: “Understanding Scope in JavaScript,” I covered the basics of how scope works when dealing with functions. Sometimes the words “scope” and “context” are used interchangeably, which only leads to confusion because they are not the same thing.

In JavaScript, “context” refers to an object. Within an object, the keyword “this” refers to that object (i.e. “self”), and provides an interface to the properties and methods that are members of that object. When a function is executed, the keyword “this” refers to the object that the function is executed in.

Here are a few scenarios:

“this” can easily give you a headache. But hang in there; we are getting to the good stuff now.

In a nutshell, in Object-literals, you don’t have local variables; you have properties of the object. So, where inside of the function foo() I might say “var drink = ‘beer’; “, for an object literal called “bar”, I would say “bar.dink = ‘beer’. “ The difference is that “beer” is a property of “bar”, whereas when a function is executing, a local variable is defined by the “var” keyword and cannot be seen by anyone or anything outside of the function.

Example # 1

Here is the jsFiddle.net link for Example # 1: http://jsfiddle.net/Q9RJv/

In Example # 1, we first create a global variable named “drink”, and set it equal to “wine”. We’ll come back to that in a minute.

Next, we create an Object Literal named “foo”, with a property “drink” that is equal to “beer”. There is also a method that simply returns “drink”. But why does it return “wine”, and not “beer”? This is because in the object “foo”, “drink” is a property of foo, not a variable. Inside of functions, when reference is made to a variable, the JavaScript engine searches the scope chain and returns the first match it finds. Although this function executes in the context of “foo”, “foo” does not have a variable named “drink”. It has a property named “drink”, but not a variable. So the JavaScript engine searches the next level of the scope chain. The next level of the scope chain is the global object, which contains a variable named “drink”, so the value of that variable (“wine”), is returned.

But wait a minute Kevin, how can we make reference to the property “drink” that is in the context of the object “foo”?

I’m glad you asked.

Example # 2

Here is the jsFiddle.net link for Example # 2: http://jsfiddle.net/HGM93/

In Example # 2, the only change we have made is that in the anonymous function that is assigned to “getDrink”, we return “this.drink” instead of “drink

This is an important detail. When a function executes in the context of an object , the keyword “this” refers to that object. You can access any of the properties of the object by using the “this” keyword, add new ones (e.g. this.color = “blue”), and change existing ones (e.g. this.drink = “juice).

Using Dot Notation to Create a JavaScript Object Literal

Example # 3

Here is the jsFiddle.net link for Example # 3: http://jsfiddle.net/ZA77k/

In Example # 3, we have the exact same functionality as Example # 2. From the JavaScript engine’s perspective, we have achieved the same goal, and the console output is exactly the same.

The difference is how we organized our code. In Example # 2, we created the properties “drink” and “getDrink” at the exact same time that we created the object literal “foo”. It is all one expression. In Example # 3, we create an empty object named “foo” first, and then use dot notation to add properties to the object one-by-one. I just wanted to point out that there is more than one way to go about all of this from a syntax perspective.

Object Literals Can Contain Other Object Literals, and those Objects Have Their Own Context

Example # 4

Here is the jsFiddle.net link for Example # 4: http://jsfiddle.net/8p38y/

In Example # 4, we have added a new property to “foo”, and that property is yet another object. At first it is empty (i.e. foo.under21 = {}), and then we add two properties to it. The first property is “drink”, which is set equal to “soda”. Don’t’ confuse this with the property “drink” that is set in the context of “foo” which is equal to “beer”. In the context of “foo.under21”, “drink” is equal to “soda”.

The second property of “foo.under21” has an anonymous function assigned to it. That anonymous function returns “this.drink”. In the context of “foo.under21”, “drink” is equal to “soda”, so calling that function returns “soda”.

The point of this example is that object literals can have properties that are themselves objects, those objects have their own context. When functions execute in the context of those objects “this” refers to the object, and so on. I am aware of no limit to this kind of object nesting.

The JavaScript .call() and .apply() Methods Allow You to Dynamically Change the Context In Which a Function is Executed

Example # 5

Here is the jsFiddle.net link for Example # 5: http://jsfiddle.net/A5ydt/

Ok, so here is the bonus question: In Example # 5, why does a call to “foo.under21.getDrink()” now return “wine” ?

This is because we changed the inner-workings of that function. Instead of simply returning “this.drink”, we use the JavaScript “.call()” method, which allows you to execute any function in the context of another object. When you do not specify the context in which that function is to be “called”, it executes in the context of the global object. In the global context, there is a variable named “drink” and it is equal to “wine”, so “wine” is returned.

Example # 6:

Here is the jsFiddle.net link for Example # 6: http://jsfiddle.net/cS4cv/

In Example # 6, “soda” is returned because when we used the JavaScript “.call()” method, we specified the context in which the function is to execute. In this case, the context we specify is “this”. “this” refers to the context of “foo.under21”, and “foo.under21” has a property named “drink”, so the value “soda” is returned.


The last two examples may seem like overkill, but I wanted to point out that just when you start to get a handle on the concept of context in JavaScript object literals, you must realize that there is a bit more to consider. JavaScript Object Literals can have properties that are also objects, and those objects have their own context. In each case, when a function executes within that context, inside of the function, the “this” keyword refers to the object that the function is a property of, because the function executes in the context of that object. By using the JavaScript “.call()” method (or “.apply()” method), you can programmatically change the context in which that function executes, which changes the meaning of the “this” accordingly.

Understanding Scope in JavaScript

Although the ‘with’ statement creates a block-level scope effect, and recent implementations of the “let” statement have the same effect, these are fodder for another conversation. I’m not a big fan of the “with” statement, and at the time of this writing, you can’t be 100% sure that the “let” statement is fully supported by the user’s browser. The end result of this is the fact that there is no block-level scope in JavaScript. Scope is created by functions.

Example # 1

Here is the jsFiddle.net link for Example # 1 : http://jsfiddle.net/2ZkkR/

In Example # 1, we set the global variable “month” equal to “july”. But inside of the function “foo()”, we also create a variable named “month”, and give it a value of “august”. The second statement in foo() is a call to the console, telling it to output the value of the variable “month”.

So, why is it that in the global scope, “console.log(month)” outputs “july”, but executing “foo()” outputs “august” ?

The reason is that inside of the function “foo()”, we used the “var” keyword to create the variable “month”. When you use the “var” keyword, the variable you create becomes local to the function that you create it in. So, inside of “foo()”, the variable “month” is local, and equal to “july”. As a result, on the very next line, the statement: “console.log(month)” outputs “july”. Inside of “foo()”, we have no knowledge of the global variable “month”, because in the scope chain, the variable “month” is found locally, so the search for “month” ends within the local scope of “foo()”.

Example # 2

Here is the jsFiddle.net link for Example # 2 : http://jsfiddle.net/6TBEM/

In Example # 2, we have added a function named “bar()”. Bar does not have a local variable named “month”. So, when “bar()” executes, the statement “console.log(month)” kicks off a search for the variable “month”. In the scope chain, there is no local variable named “month”, so the JavaScript engine looks to the next level of the scope chain, which happens to be the global scope. In the global scope, there is a variable named “month”, so the value of that variable is returned, and it is “july”.

So, “foo()” outputs: “august” and “bar()” outputs: “july”, because, although they both look for a variable named “month”, they find completely different values; in their respective scope chains, the value of a variable named “month” differs.

Example # 3

Here is the jsFiddle.net link for Example # 3 : http://jsfiddle.net/ZaXxk/

In Example # 3, notice a new statement in the “foo()” function: “window.season”.

In this statement, we are creating a global variable named “season”. Although we are within the context of the “foo()” function, we can reference the global scope by mutating the “window” object. “window” is essentially the global object. Creating a global variable while inside of the local scope of “foo()” is easily done by adding a property to the “window” object; in our case we name it “season” and give it a value of “summer”.

So once again, although we are in the local scope of “foo()”, we have just created a global variable named “season” and given it the value of “summer”, by adding a new property to the “window” object (e.g., window.season = ‘summer’).

Example # 4

Here is the jsFiddle.net link for Example # 4 : http://jsfiddle.net/XYu4x/

In Example # 4, we create another global variable while within the local scope of “foo()”, named “weather”. This approach is different because when we say: weather = “hot”, the absence of the “var” keyword automatically makes the variable global. This is important to remember and make note of: If you omit the “var” keyword when creating a variable, no matter where you do it, that variable becomes global.

In general, this is something that you want to avoid, as it can lead to code that is hard to understand and even harder to maintain. But for the purpose of this discussion, it illustrates an important behavior in JavaScript: omitting the “var” keyword when creating a variable makes that variable global, no matter where you do it. I’m repeating this because it is an important detail to remember.

Example # 5

Here is the jsFiddle.net link for Example # 5 : http://jsfiddle.net/NTjYe/

In Example # 5, we yet again create a new global variable from within the local scope of “foo()”. This variable is named “activity”. We demonstrate yet another way in which you can do this by saying: this.activity = ‘swimming’. This introduces another concept: the meaning of “this” inside a function (no pun intended).

Inside a function, the “this” keyword refers to the context in which the function is executed. In our example, “foo()” is executed in the context of the global object, so “this” referes to the global object, which means that “this.activity” adds a property to the global object named “activity”.

Make note: While “foo()” has it’s own “local” scope, the keyword “this” refers to the context in which “foo()” is executed. This is another important detail to remember. It will come up a lot when writing more advanced JavaScript.

Another (very) important note:  An “implied global” is what occurs when you omit the “var” keyword when declaring a variable. There is a subtle, yet important difference between that and a variable created using the “var” keyword in the global scope: an implied global is actually not a variable; it is a property of the “window” object. For the most part, it behaves very much like a global variable, but there are differences: for example, you cannot delete a global variable, but you can delete a property of the window object. This is a topic worth looking into when you have time, and at minmum, good to be aware of.


At first, the concept of scope in JavaScript can be a challenge to fully understand. But it is very much worth the effort. Once you understand scope, the JavaScript language becomes a sharp knife that can be used to sculpt elegant and expressive code. This tutorial discussed only the most basic concept of scope in JavaScript. I highly recommend exploring it in-depth.

Helpful Links for Scope in JavaScript




How to Create a Name-Spaced Object to Avoid Using Global Variables in JavaScript

Creating your own custom Object is a good way to keep the global name-space clean and write organized code with predictable results.

Sometimes you may need variables that are available to every function in your script. While it is tempting to use global variables to achieve this kind of scope, doing so can cause unpredictable results and spaghetti code. If you create your own object, define your properties and methods, and then access them via a clean, name-spaced syntax, you control the scope as well as the code’s behavior.

Example # 1:

Here are a few examples of using global variables. In each case, it is very easy to lose track of the value of these variables throughout your script, as well as which functions have access to them.

You may want to access these variables from multiple functions in your code, and in various scenarios, change the value of those functions. This is certainly possible, but there are better ways to achieve the same functionality.

Example # 2:

In this example, we create a custom object called “bankClient”. We then define the properties of this object.

In this example, there are two ways that we could access these variables:

Example # 2A

  • object.property
  • object[‘property’]

Example # 2B

Either one of the above approaches will work just fine.

Example # 3:

You can also define a method for your object.  A method would be a function that you define within the object, and then call by using the same name-spaced syntax.  In the example below, we expand our object by adding a method. This method returns the value of the client account number.  You may notice the use of the “this” keyword. In such a case, “this” refers to the object who’s context we are currently in, which would be “bankClient”. This is something you’ll see often when working with objects in JavaScript.

That value is hard-coded in the object definition, but then  notice how we change the value of the property, and then retrieve it. In the same manner, the property “name” is at first empty, but we assign a value to it, and then grab that value (i.e. “Roger Sterling”).

The output for Example # 3 would be:

Account # changed to: 111-222-333
Client Name: Roger Sterling


Creating your own custom object is a good way to avoid cluttering up the global namespace. It is also an improved method of keeping tabs on your variables as they become properties of the object. You can define methods for your object and access them the same way. In doing this, you create organized code that’s easier to read, maintain, and extend.

Helpful Links about JavaScript Objects